2015年7月8日 星期三

penance, dread, presence, great, days of penance

"We need to look ahead. Europe was founded on debt forgiveness and investment in the future. Not on the idea of endless penance. We need to remember this."

'Algerian Chronicles'
By ALBERT CAMUS. Translated by ARTHUR GOLDHAMMER. Edited by ALICE KAPLAN.
Reviewed by SUSAN RUBIN SULEIMAN
Albert Camus's writing on Algeria reveals both hope and dread.
It's Goldman Bonus Day Many employees are dreading "Compensation Communication Day," and for good reason. The firm announced on Wednesday that its revenue in 2011 was down significantly, probably bringing bonuses down with it.



Journalists dread the moments they have to write the obituary of a person they know, but when it's a colleague and a close friend the effort becomes a penance.
confession/penance

days of penance:補贖日:基督徒應為自己的罪作補贖,教會規定在共同補贖日期,除了專務祈禱、善盡己職、實踐慈善愛德工作外,全年的每週星期五應守小齋; 聖灰禮儀星期三,及耶穌受難日應守大、小齋(法典 1249-1253);經由此一克己苦身方式,紀念耶穌的受苦受難,以賠補所犯的罪過。


day of recollection/days of penance

Day of Atonement :猶太教的齋戒日:在猶太曆的七月初十日,為猶太教的最大節日。
day of recollection :退省日;避靜日:暫時放下日常工作,從容檢討精神生活、宗教問題之日。
Day of the Lord  (1) 主的日子;主日;星期日。 (2) 基督再度來臨的日子。
days of penance :補贖日:基督徒應為自己的罪作補贖,教會規定在共同補贖日期,除了專務祈禱、善盡己職、實踐慈善愛德工作外,全年的每週星期五應守小齋;聖灰禮儀星期三,及耶穌受難日應守大、小齋(法典 1249-1253 );經由此 一克 己苦身方式,紀念耶穌的受苦受難,以賠補所犯的罪過。

dread

(drĕd) pronunciation

v., dread·ed, dread·ing, dreads. v.tr.
  1. To be in terror of.
  2. To anticipate with alarm, distaste, or reluctance: dreaded the long drive home.
  3. Archaic. To hold in awe or reverence.
v.intr.
To be very afraid.

n.
  1. Profound fear; terror.
  2. Fearful or distasteful anticipation. See synonyms at fear.
  3. An object of fear, awe, or reverence.
  4. Archaic. Awe; reverence.
adj.
  1. Causing terror or fear: a dread disease.
  2. Inspiring awe: the dread presence of the headmaster.
[Middle English dreden, short for adreden, from Old English adrǣdan, from ondrǣdan, to advise against, fear : ond-, and-, against; see un-2 + rǣdan, to advise.]



Definition of dread

verb

[with object]
  • 1anticipate with great apprehension or fear:Jane was dreading the party [with infinitive]:I dread to think what Russell will say
  • 2 archaic regard with great awe or reverence: the man whom Henry dreaded as the future champion of English freedom

noun

  • 1 [mass noun] great fear or apprehension:the thought of returning to London filled her with dread [in singular]:I used to have a dread of Friday afternoons
  • 2a sudden take-off and flight of a flock of gulls or other birds: flocks of wood sandpiper, often excitable, noisy, and given to dreads
  • 3 informal a person with dreadlocks:the band appeals to dreads and baldheads alike
  • (dreads) dreadlocks: Lyon combed his fingers through Curtis' dreads

adjective

[attributive]
  • 1greatly feared; dreadful:he was stricken with the dread disease and died
  • 2 archaic regarded with awe; greatly revered:that dread being we dare oppose

Origin:

Old English ādrǣdan, ondrǣdan, of West Germanic origin; related to Old High German intrātan

presence[pres・ence]

  • レベル:最重要
  • 発音記号[prézns]
[名]
1 [U]いる[ある]こと;存在;[U][C]出席, 同席(⇔absence)
his presence at the reception
歓迎会に彼が出席していること
make one's presence felt
自分の存在を印象づける
provide a heavy presence
(警察が)あちこちで見張っているという存在感を与える.
2 [U]
(1) ((the [one's] 〜))人前, 面前;すぐそば
in the presence of policemen
警官のいる所で.
(2) ((英))(高貴な人の)面前, 御前
be admitted to the presence
拝謁を許される.
3 [U][C](堂々とした)態度, 風采(ふうさい), 風貌(ふうぼう), 貫禄, 押し出し
a man of greatpoor] presence
風采のりっぱな[ぱっとしない]人.
4 ((形容詞を伴って))堂々とした[風采の立派な]人物
He is a real presence.
実に見栄えのする人物だ.
5 (その場に存在が感じられる)霊, 精霊, 幽霊;影響力.
6 [U][C](外国への軍事的・経済的な)進出, プレゼンス;(他国の軍隊の)駐留;駐留軍.
7 [U](音楽の)臨場感.
in the presence of ...
(1) …の面前で. ⇒2
(2) …に直面して
in the presence of danger
危機に直面して.
saving your presence
あなたの前ですが, 失礼ですが.
the presence of mind
(急場での)落ち着き, 平静
have the presence of mind to do
…するほど落ち着いている.

presence :臨在;鑒臨;親在:指兩存有物某種程度的互相滲透。造物主天主臨在於宇宙,尤其與我們人類同在,包括基督親臨信徒中,尤指基督親在聖體聖事中。
presence at Mass :參與彌撒;與祭。
presence of God :天主的鑒臨;天主的臨在:無所不在的天主,此時此刻就在我們面前,善人的靈魂是天主的聖殿。


Line breaks: pen|ance
Pronunciation: /ˈpɛnəns/ 

Definition of penance in English:

noun

[MASS NOUN]
1Punishment inflicted on oneself as an outward expression of repentance for wrongdoing:he had done public penance for those hasty words
2sacrament in which a member of the Church confesses sins to a priest and is given absolution. In the Roman Catholic Church often called sacrament of reconciliation.
2.1A religious observance or other duty required of a person by a priest as part of this sacrament to indicate repentance.

verb

[WITH OBJECT] archaicBack to top  
Impose a penance on:the Bishop penanced him severely for his conduct

Origin

Middle English: from Old French, from Latin paenitentia'repentance', from the verb paenitere 'be sorry'.

great


 
音節
great
発音
gréit
レベル
最重要
greatの変化形
greats (複数形)
greatの慣用句
a great one for, Great God!, (全2件)
[形]
1 ((通例限定))大きい;巨大[壮大, 広大]な
a great city
大都会(▼a big cityに文化・歴史などを加味)
a great earthquake
大地震.
2 ((限定))
(1) ((ふつう数量を表す名詞を伴って))多数[多量]の
a great crowd
大群衆
the great majority
大多数, 大部分
a great numberdealof ...
多数[多量]の…
a great many people
数多くの人々.
(2) ((時間を表す名詞を伴って))長期の, 久しい
a great while
ずいぶん長い期間.
3
(1) ((通例限定))〈事が〉たいへんな, 強烈な
a great light
強い光線
great pain
激しい痛み
with great difficulty
非常に苦労して.
(2) ((限定))((人を表す名詞を伴い, その内容の程度を示して))大の, たいへんな, 非常な
a great fool
大ばか者
a great reader
大の読書家.
4 ((限定))重要[重大]な;主な, 主要な
a great occasion
大祝祭日, 大きな行事のある日
a great era in history
歴史上の重要な時代
his greatest work
彼の主著
It's no great matter.
それは大した問題じゃない.
5 有名な, 著名な;((the G-))((称号・肩書))大…;偉大な, 優秀な, 卓越した
a great poet
有名な詩人
Alexander the Ggreat
アレクサンダー大王
a great bookpainting
名著[名画]
a great family
名門.
6 気高い, 崇高[高尚]な;(身分・地位などの)高い, 高位の
great deeds
崇高な行為
a great lady
貴婦人.
7 よく使われる, 大いに好まれる
a great trick of his
彼のいつもの手口.
8 ((話))とても楽しい, すばらしい
We had a great time in Bali.
バリ島ではとても楽しかった
It's great to see you again.
また会えて本当にうれしい.
9 ((話))(…が)うまい, 得意だ((at, on ...));(…に)非常に熱心な, (…が)とても好きな((at, for, on ...));効く((for ...)).
a great one for ...
((英))…にとても熱心な人.
Great God [Caesar, heavens, Scott, guns]!
((古風))((驚き・ののしり))しまった;大変だ;なんだって.
━━[副]((話))うまく, とてもよく, りっぱに;((大きさを表す形容詞の前に用いて))とても, えらく
a great big man
大男
The show was a great big failure.
そのショーは大失敗だった(▼強勢はgréat bìg ...となる)
The project is going great.
計画はうまく運んでいる.
━━[名]
1 大物, 名士, 花形;((集合的))偉大な人たち, 身分の高い人々
a professional football great
プロフットボールの花形選手
the greats of modern music
現代音楽の大物たち
great and small
身分の高い者も低い者も.
2 ((〜s, しばしばGreats))((単数扱い))((英略式))(特にOxford大学で)人文学課程のBA学位を取るための最終試験;その人文学課程の学科.
3 ((the 〜))((古))全体, 総体.
━━[間]
1 まあ, すばらしい
How do I look in this dress?” “Oh, great!”
「このドレスどうかしら」「まあ, すばらしい」.
2 ((皮肉・冗談))ごりっぱ, おみごと. 

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